President of India
Shri Ram Nath Kovind was sworn in as the 14th President of India on 25 July, 2017. A lawyer by profession, he had been the Governor of the State of Bihar before he took over the highest constitutional office. Shri Kovind brings to the office a rich experience of working across the spectrum of the republic, from the grassroots to the apex court and parliament. He has been an ardent champion of equality in society and integrity in public life.
Shri Kovind was born on 1st October 1945 at village Paraunkh in Kanpur district of the State of Uttar Pradesh. Coming from a family of modest means, his beginning was humble. He attended school and college in Kanpur. He first studied commerce for Bachelors and then attained his Law degree from Kanpur University.
Vice-President of India
|Name:||Shri M. Venkaiah Naidu|
|Father’s Name||Late Shri Rangaiah Naidu|
|Mother’s Name||Late Shrimati Ramanamma|
|Date of Birth||1 July 1949|
|Place of Birth||Chavatapalem, Distt. Nellore (Andhra Pradesh)|
|Marital Status||Married on 14 April 1970|
|Spouse’s Name||Shrimati M. Usha|
|Children||One Son and One daughter|
|Educational Qualifications||B.A., B.L. (Educated at V.R. High School, Nellore; V.R. College, Nellore and Law College, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam)|
|Profession||Agriculturist/Farmer, Political and Social worker|
|Permanent Address||Plot No. 514, Road No. 29, Jubilee Hills
|Present Address||Vice-President’s House,
6, Maulana Azad Road,
New Delhi – 110 011
Telephone – 011-23016422, 23016344
Prime Minister of India
Narendra Damodardas Modi
17 September 1950
|Political party||Bharatiya Janata Party|
|National Democratic Alliance|
|Spouse(s)||Jashodaben Modi (m. 1968; estranged)|
|Residence||7, Lok Kalyan Marg, New Delhi, Delhi, India|
General Information about India
India Union of States: India is an alliance of states. It is an independent socialist democratic republic with a parliamentary system of government. The Republic of India is administered by the Constitution, which was taken on by the Constituent Assembly on 26 November 1949 and came into power on 26 January 1950.
Greatest Constitution: The Constitution of India is the largest written constitution in the world. When the constitution came into force, it had 395 articles, 8 schedules, and 22 sections, which has now increased to 448 articles, 12 schedules, and 25 sections. It also includes five appendices that were not in the beginning.
Drafting of the Constitution: On August 29, 1947, the Drafting Committee of the Constitution of India was set up with Dr. Bhim Rao Ambedkar as its chairman. That is why Dr. Ambedkar is also called the framework of the Constitution.
Members of the Constituent Assembly: The 284 members of the Constituent Assembly signed the document on January 24, 1950, including 15 women. Then on January 26, the Constitution of India came into being. It required 2 years, 11 months, and 18 days to pass.
Preface to the Constitution: The preamble to the Indian Constitution is inspired by the US Constitution and is considered the best in the world. Through the preamble, the essence, requirements, aims, objectives, and philosophy of the Indian Constitution are revealed. The preamble declares that the Constitution derives its power directly from the people, hence it begins with the phrase ‘We are the people of India’.
Characteristics of the Constitution: The peculiarity of the Constitution of India is that it is unitary as well as federal. The Constitution of India has all the above features of the Federal Constitution. The second feature is that in case of emergency, there are provisions in the Indian Constitution to make the Center more powerful in accordance with the unitary constitutions.
The third feature is that only one citizenship is included and the same constitution governs the business of the central and state governments. In addition, some good things in the constitution have been compiled from other constitutions of the world.
Parliamentary Form: The Constitution provides a parliamentary form of government with a federal structure with some unitary features. The president is the constitutional head of the central executive. As indicated by Article 79 of the Constitution of India, the Council of Union Parliament comprises the President and two Houses called the Council of States (Rajya Sabha) and the House of People (Lok Sabha).
Article 74 (1) of the Constitution states that there shall be a Council of Ministers headed by the Prime Minister to assist and advise the President, and the President shall perform his duties in accordance with the advice. Thus the real executive power is in the Council of Ministers headed by the Prime Minister.
Three important points of the Constitution: The Constitution of India is based on three important points. The main political standard, as indicated by which India will be a vote-based country. It will be an independent, secular state.
Second, what will be the relationship between Indian government agencies? How will they work together? What will be the rights of government institutions, what will be their duties, what kind of procedure will be applied to the institutions. Third, what are the basic rights of Indian citizens, and what are the duties of citizens? Also, what will be the guiding principles of state policy?
Constitutional Amendment: According to the opinion of the Constituent Assembly, appropriate provisions may be required from time to time for the overall development of the country, for which three different modalities of the constitutional amendment have been given. The first amendment to the constitution was made on June 18, 1951. So far 100 amendments have been made to the constitution.
Secularism: In 1976, the word socialist and secular was added to the preamble through the 42nd amendment to the constitution. The first word was secular instead of secular. It provides equal status and opportunities to all its citizens without any discrimination on the basis of caste, color, race, sex, religion, or language.
Source: India Book 2020 – A Reference Annual, Ministry of Environment, NITI Aayog, Census of India, Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Press Information Bureau, Ministry of External Affairs, Union Budget, Reserve Bank of India, President of India, India.gov.in